Corn, Staple Food Alternatives To The World


Corn, Staple Food Alternatives To The World
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Corn is one of the world's most important carbohydrate-producing food crops, in addition to wheat and rice. For the population of Central and South America, the grain of corn is a staple food, as for some of the population of Africa and some regions in Indonesia.

Part of the corn that is commonly eaten by humans is the seeds, both young when the contents have not dried or after the old and dried up. Dried beans can be mashed into cornstarch (cornflour). Coarse fractions of corn seeds are processed in the United States as popular breakfast foods, Corn flakes. Whole corn seeds can be baked, roasted, or fried. Dried corn seed frying is known as marning in Central Java.

Corn quoted from ntb.litbang.pertanian.go.id is one of the staple food that has an important position after rice for the people of Indonesia. The essential nutrient content on corn is carbohydrates and fat. Corn carbohydrates consist of starch, sugar, coarse fiber, and pentosan.

Corn starch is made up of amyc and amylopectin, while the sugar is sucrose. Its constituent fatty acids consist of saturated fatty acids that are palmitate and stearate, as well as unsaturated fatty acids of oleic and linoleic. Corn Protein has a pretty good composition of amino acids.

As quoted from the Book of Corn, "Production and development techniques", issued by the Cereal Research Institute 2007, according to Dr. Ir Nur Richana MSi of the Great Hall of Research and development of Pascapanen, Bogor, and Dr. Suarni MSi from the Research Institute Maros Regency Cereal, corn in Indonesia has become a second important food commodity after rice. In one seed of corn, its Quintessence content ranges between 54,1-71,7 percent, while its sugar content is 2.6-12 percent. Therefore, in some regions in Indonesia such as East Java, Central Java, and Sulawesi, corn is used partly as a staple food for rice.

As a primary refined product or semi-finished product, dried flatulation corn can be processed into Sosoh corn, corn rice, or cornstarch. Sosoh corn is commonly processed into Bassang, which is a traditional food typical of South Sulawesi. Meanwhile, corn rice can be cooked like rice. Other corn products are corn milk, cornstarch, popcorn, tortilla, corn chips and so forth.

In Madura, corn old was made a staple food substitute rice. In North Sulawesi, corn is mixed with rice, served with vegetables in coconut milk as a further. It is also used as a mixture of cakes, cookies, and cake.

Botanical Description Of The Morphology

Corn plants according to www.ui.ac.id, including seasonal plants with an age of approximately 3 months. The corn plant consists of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Corn is a strong grass plant, a little tall with coarse stems and the height ranges from 0.6-3 m. Ribbon-shaped leaf sheet.

The male flower is collected at the end of the stem into a tightly-formed foam, while the female flower becomes a stand-alone, on the armpit, in the form of a cob. Each cob has a protective leaf that is in a dry condition commonly used as a cigarette leaf. Corn hair is the head of the PISTG and the head of the corn fruit pistil in the form of yarn slender, weak, somewhat shiny, with a length of 10 – 25 cm and a diameter of approximately 0.4 mm.

In Indonesia, corn can grow in areas of less water or mountains, both in fertile soil and in barren soil, in lowlands as well as in the Highlands. The corn plant adapts to a variety of environmental conditions. The age of corn plants ranges from three or four months until it can be picked.

Corn is a seasoned plant that belongs to the large family of herbaceous grasses (Gramineae) and has diverse relatives and colors. Indonesian corn varieties are white seed corn (local corn that feels sweet) and corn yellow seeds. Yellow corn seeds are two types, namely Metro Corn and hybrid corn (corn cob two).

Based on research, these composite corn flour can substitute 30-40 percent flour for wet cakes, 60-70 percent for pastries, and 10-15 percent for bread and processed noodles.

According to Wikipedia, the people of Olmek and Maya were already cultivated corn across Central America from 10,000 years ago and acquainted with various processing techniques. The results of archaeological clues led to the cultivation of corn primitive in the southern part of Mexico, Central America, since 7000 years ago. Since 2500 BCE, this plant has been known in many parts of the Americas. Corn entered Nusantara was estimated in the 16th century by Portuguese explorers.

The scientific name of corn is Zea mays, L. In Indonesia, various names are used to refer to corn. The word corn according to the Lombard Denys is a great rating of Java, meaning a large jewawut, the name used by Javanese people. Some regional names are Jagong (Sunda, Aceh, Batak, Ambon), Jago (Bima), Jhaghung (Madura), Rigi (Nias), Eyako (Enggano), Wataru (Sumba), Latung (Flores), Fata (Solor), pen (Timor), approximation (Toraja), Kastela (Halmahera), Telo (Tidore), transgender or Binde (Gorontalo and Buol), and Barelle ́ (Bugis). In the eastern region of Indonesia is also widely used term milu, which comes from milho, meaning corn in Portuguese.

Use Of Corn


Corn food
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Corn is also widely used as the raw material of food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. The largest production of corn is corn starch (cornflour), corn oil, baby food, sauce cakes, and many more. The usefulness of corn oil is also variegated because it has a saturated fatty acid content, so it is suitable for those who do a low cholesterol diet.

Corn plants from the fruit to the waste can be utilized into a useful product, for example from the leaves until the stem can be used as animal feed. From the skin of corn (klobot) can be processed into wrappers, souvenirs, also accessories. And the pistil head and the Tongis often processed into herbal medicine.

Indonesia from 2012 to 2014 ranks the 8th corn (dried flat) producers of the world. The production of dried flat corn in Indonesia in 2014 increased from 2013, 19,008,426 tons from the previous 18,511,853 tons, but remained lower than the 2012 achievement of 19,387,022 tonnes.

The largest corn producer of the Moment (data 2014) in the United States (34.8 percent) of the total world production, followed by China 20.8 percent, Brazil 7.7 percent, Argentina 3.2 percent, Ukraine 2.7 percent, India 2.3 percent, Mexico 2.2 percent, Indonesia 1.8 percent, France is 1.8 percent and South Africa is 1.4 percent.

Corn might is a commodity of world trade. In general, corn is traded for livestock feed as well as for the manufacture of cornstarch. Based on the FAO data, the World corn production in 2014 is 1,038 million tonnes more, increasing slightly from 2013 by 1,018 million tons of dried flatness.

According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture quoted from pusatdata.kontan.co.id, in the last five years, Indonesia produces 18 million-20 million tonnes of corn, so Indonesia becomes the 8th largest producing country of corn in the world. The land here is also very suitable for planting. Medium rainfall with temperature 23-27 degrees Celsius and does not require the irrigation system too complicated because corn does not need as much water as rice. No wonder corn centers are scattered in various regions in Indonesia, such as Malang, Kediri, Blitar, Tuban (East Java), Garut (West Java), Gowa, Pinrang (South Sulawesi), Gorontalo, Lampung.

Benefits of Herbal Corn

The nutritional content of corn seeds quoted from Wikipedia is very rich in carbohydrates. Most are on the endosperm. Carbohydrate content can reach 80 percent of all dry seed ingredients. Carbohydrates in the starch form are generally a mixture of amyc and amylopectin.

On glutinous corn, most or all of its patis is amylopectin. This difference does not have much influence on nutrient content, but more meaningful in processing as a food ingredient. Sweetcorn is known to contain lower amylopectin but is an increase in phytoogcogen and sucrose. and the digestible section is 90 percent.

For the same size, although corn has a lower carbohydrate content, has a protein content more than rice.

Based on research cited from lib.ui.ac.id, corn hair contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, calcium salts, potassium, magnesium, and sodium, essential oils, steroids like sitosterol and Stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and Flavonoids. Corn hair has several benefits that can be used to lower cholesterol levels, decay to urine, lower high blood pressure, acute and chronic kidney infections.

While the research team of the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Ilorin University, Nigeria, researched corn skin extract has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, due to the presence of tannins and polyphenols constituents. The use of corn skin decoction to treat pain and inflammatory conditions is already common by the people of Nigeria since long ago.

Team of the Department of Pharmacognosy Institute of Research and Health sciences graduate of Mrs. Theresa Puducherry India examines and evaluates the antiinflammatory activity of corn leaf by the HRBC membrane stabilization method. The results of the study showed extracts from the corn leaf had potent anti-inflammatory activity, due to the presence of phenolic compounds of flavonoids and confirmed by preliminary phytochemical analyses.

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