Cultivation Of Corn Crops


Cultivation Of Corn Crops
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SHORT INFORMATION ABOUT CORN

Corn is one of the grain crops of the herbaceous family. It originated from America that spread to Asia and Africa through the business activities of European people to America. Around the 16th century, Portugal spread to Asia including Indonesia. The Dutch named her Mais and the British named her corn.

Planting Centers

In Indonesia, the main producing areas of corn plants are Central Java, West Java, East Java, Madura, Yogyakarta, East Nusa Tenggara, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, and Maluku. Especially in East Java and Madura, the cultivation of corn is done intensively because the soil condition and climate are very supportive for growth.

Types of corn can be grouped by age and seed form, as below:

According to age, divided into 3 groups:
  • Short-lived (Genjah): 75-90 days, Example: Genjah Warangan, Genjah Kertas, Abimanyu, and Arjuna.
  • Middle-aged (middle): 90-120 days, Example: Hybrid C 1, Hybrid CP 1 and CPI 2, Hybrid IPB 4, Hybrid Pioneer 2, Malin, Metro, and Pandu.
  • Long-lived: more than 120 days, for example: Kania white, Bastar, yellow, Bima and hope.
By seed form, divided into 7 groups:
  • Dent Corn
  • Flint Corn
  • Sweet Corn
  • Pop Corn
  • Flour Corn
  • Pod Corn
  • Waxy Corn
Superior varieties have properties: high production, short lifespan, resistance to major disease attacks and other beneficial qualities. These superior varieties can be differentiated into two, namely: hybrid corn and free-sari corn varieties.

Names of several varieties of corn are known in Indonesia among others: Abimanyu, Arjuna, Bromo, Bastar yellow, Bima, Genjah Kertas, Hope, New Hope, Hybrid C 1 (hybrid Cargil 1), IPB 4 hybrid, Kalingga, Kania Putih, Malin, Metro, Nakula, Pandu, Parikesit, Permadi, Sadewa, Wiyasa and Bogor Composite-2.

Benefits

Corn plants
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Corn plants are very beneficial for human and animal life. In Indonesia, corn is the second most important commodity of food crops after rice. In the Madura region, corn is widely used as a staple food.

Lately, corn plants are increasing their use. The corn plant is a lot of use because almost all parts of plants can be utilized for a variety of purposes, among others:
  1. Stems and young leaves: livestock Feed
  2. Stem and old leaf (after harvest): green fertilizer or compost
  3. Stems and leaves dried: firewood
  4. Corn Rod: Speech
  5. Corn Rod: Pulp (paper material)
  6. Young corn fruit (Putren, Jw): vegetables, Bergedel, Bakwan, fried Sambal
  7. Old corn Seeds: Substitutes for rice, popcorn, cornbread, flour, vermicelli, a mixed ingredient of powdered coffee, biscuits, pastries, fodder, raw materials of the beer industry, pharmaceutical industry, dextrin, adhesive, textile industry.

TERMS OF GROWTH

The corn plant comes from a tropical area that can conform to the environment outside the area. Corn does not demand any environmental requirements that are too strict, can grow on a wide range of soils even on a rather dry soil condition. But for optimum growth, corn wants some requirements.

Climate

How corn plants can grow based on climate? 
  • The climate desired by corn plants is the temperate regions to wet sub-tropical/tropical temperate regions. Corn can grow in areas located between 0-50 degrees LU to 0-40 degrees LS.
  • On unirrigated land, the growth of this plant requires an ideal rainfall of about 85-200 mm/month and should be evenly distributed. In the flowering phase and the replenishment of corn plant seeds need to get enough water. Corn should be planted in the early rainy season, and ahead of the dry season.
  • The growth of corn plants requires sunlight. The corn plants that are covered, the growth will be hampered and give the result of less good seeds can not even form the fruit.
  • The desired temperature of corn plant between 21-34 degrees C, but for the ideal plant growth requires the optimum temperature between 23-27 degrees C. In the process of germination of corn seeds requires a suitable temperature of about 30 degrees C.
  • When the harvest of corn that falls in the dry season will be better than the rainy season because it affects the cooking time of the seed and drying results.
Planting Media

Corn Plants
image via freepick

Also, we have to concern about planting media of corn, let take a look below:
  • Corn does not require specific soil requirements. To be able to grow optimally the soil should be loose, fertile and rich humus.
  • The type of soil that can be planted with corn include Andosol (derived from the volcano), Latosol, Grumosol, sandy soil. In soils with heavy texture (Grumosol) can still be planted with corn with good results with good soil processing. As for soil with the texture of clay (LATOSOL), Dusty is the best for its growth.
  • The acidity of the soil closely relates to the availability of plant nutrient elements. Good soil acidity for corn plant growth is pH between 5.6-7.5.
  • Corn plants need soil with aeration and water availability in good condition.
  • Land with a slope of less than 8% can be planted with corn because there is a possibility of soil erosion is very small. While the area with a slope of more than 8%, we recommend the formation of the porch first.
Place altitude

Corn can be grown in Indonesia from lowland to mountainous regions that have a height of 1000-1800 m above the sea level. The area with a height of 0-600 m above is the optimum height for the growth of corn plants.

It's an article about Cultivation Of Corn Crops. Hopefully, can give more information to you.

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