Technical Guidelines For Corn Cultivation


Corn Cultivation
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Continuing the previous article on corn cultivation, then in this article I will discuss more detail about that topic. Let's read following article to give you more knowledged.

SEEDLINGS

Seed Requirements

The seeds that will be used should be high quality, good quality genetic, physical or Physiology. Derived from the superior varieties (large growing power, not mixed seed/other varieties, it contains no dirt, unpolluted pests, and diseases). Such seeds can be obtained when using certified seeds. Generally, the seeds needed are heavily dependent on seed health, seed purity and seed growing power.

The use of hybrid corn seeds will usually produce higher production. But the seed price is more expensive and can only be used a maximum of 2 times the derivative and available in a limited number. Some of the superior varieties of corn to choose from as seeds are: Hybrid C 1, Hybrid C 2, Hybrid Pioneer 1, Pioneer 2, IPB 4, CPI-1, Kaliangga, Wiyasa, Arjuna, Yellow Baster, Kania Putih, Metro, Harapan, Bima, Permadi, Bogor Composite, Parikesit, Sadewa, Nakula. Also, the superior types that have not been long developed are CPI-2, BISI-1, BISI-2, P-3, P-4, P-5, C-3, Semar 1 and Semar 2 (all types of hybrids).

Seed Preparation

The seeds can be obtained from the self-cultivation chosen from some healthy corn plant growth. From the chosen plant, taken with a large coat, a row of straight and full beans are tightly sealed by the Klobot, and not attacked by pests. Tongkol is picked at the time of ripe physiology with characteristics: the seeds are hardened and most of the leaves are yellow. The cob is peeled and dried to dry properly. When the seed will be stored in the long term, after drying the cob is wrapped and stored and stored in a dry place. From the dried cob, the seed is taken as a seed. The seeds found at the ends and the base are not used as seeds. The growing power of seeds should be more than 90% if less than that should seed be replaced. The seeds required are as much as 20-30 kg/ha.

Removal Of Seeds

Before the seed is planted, it should be mixed first with a fungicide such as Benlate to ward off a fungal attack. Whereas if there is suspected to be an attack flies seeds and Agrotis caterpillars, preferably seeds are inserted into the holes together with a granular and systemic insecticide such as Furadan 3 G.

PLANTING MEDIA PROCESSING

Preparation

Done by flipping the soil and splitting the soil to get the loose ground to improve aeration. The land to be planted (candidate place of the row of plants) is dug as deep as 15-20 cm, then flatten. Harsh soils require more processing. First, the land was chopped/plowed and then smoothed and crushed.

Land Clearing

Land processing begins with clearing the land from the remainder of the previous plant. When the remaining plants are burned, the Ashes are returned to the ground, then continued with the removal and processing of land with plows.

Bewith Formation

Once the soil is processed, every 3 meters are made drainage channels along the line of plants. Channel width 25-30 cm with a depth of 20 cm. This channel is made mainly of soil with poor drainage.

Lime Given

In areas with a pH of less than 5, the soil must be given Kapur. The amount of lime given ranges from 1-3 tons given each 2-3 years. The provision is done by spreading the lime evenly or on a row of plants, about 1 month before planting. It can also be used dose 300 kg/ha per planting season through a spread in the ranks of plants.

Fertilization

If the soil to be planted does not guarantee sufficient nutrient availability it should be fertilizing. The fertilizer dose required by the plant relies heavily on soil fertility and is administered gradually. The average dosage recommendation is: Urea = 200-300 kg/ha, TSP = 75-100 kg/ha and KCl = 50-100 kg/ha. As for the way and dose fertilization for each hectare:
  • Basic fertilization: 1/3 parts of Urea fertilizer and 1 part of TSP fertilizer is given when planting, 7 cm in the left and right ditch the planting hole as deep as 5 cm and closed ground;
  • Adding I: 1/3 Urea fertilizer section plus 1/3 KCl Fertilizer section is given after the plant 30 days, 15 cm in the left and right ditch the planting hole as deep as 10 cm and then in the lid of the ground;
  • Adding II: 1/3 Urea Fertilizer section is given when the plant is 45 days.

PLANTING TECHNIQUES


Corn Planting Techniques
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Determination Of Crop Pattern

Planting patterns in tropical areas such as Indonesia, usually arranged for 1 year with attention to rainfall (especially in areas/land that is entirely dependent on rain. Some of the commonly used cropping patterns are as follows:
  • Intercropping, planting more than 1 plant (age equal or different). Examples: equal age intercropping such as corn and soy; Intercropping of different ages such as corn, cassava tree, Gogo rice.
  • The overlap (Multiple Cropping), is done in a row throughout the year by considering other factors to benefit maximum. Examples: Young corn, Gogo rice, peanut, cassava.
  • Crop Cropping: Planting pattern by inserting one or several types of plants in addition to the staple plants (at the same time planting or a different time). Examples: corn inserted peanuts, corn time before the harvest is inserted long beans.
  • Mixed Cropping: Planting consists of several plants and growing without the spacing of planting and running distances, all of which are mixed into one area efficiently, but risky against the threat of pests and diseases. Examples: Mixed crops like corn, soy, cassava.
Planting Hole Making

Planting holes are made with tugal tools. The depth of the hole should be noticed for the seeds to not obstructed growth. Depth of planting hole between 3-5 cm and each hole is filled with only 1 grain of seed.

The spacing of corn is adjusted to the lifespan of the harvest, the longer they age, the plant will be higher and require a wider place. Corn aged in/long with harvest time ³ 100 days since planting, the spacing is made 40x100 cm (2 plants/holes). Corn is medium (harvest 80-100 days), the spacing is 25x75 cm (1 plant/hole). While corn is short-lived (Harvest < 80 days), the planting distance is 20x50 cm (1 plant/hole). The depth of the planting hole is between 3-5 cm.

Planting

At planting distance 75 x 25 cm each hole planted one plant. It can also use a spacing of 75 x 50 cm, each hole planted two plants.

This herb can not grow well at the time of less water or when water is excessive. At the time of the rainy season or the rainy season, time is about to end, these corn seeds can be planted. But water should be enough available during the growth of corn crops. At the time of planting should the soil be moist.

When the soil is dry, it needs to be disturbed first, except when it is suspected that 1-2 days more rain will fall. The creation of plant holes and planting usually requires 4 people (2 people make holes, 1 person Enter the seed, 1 person again inserts the basic fertilizer and closes the hole). The number of seeds entered per hole depends on the desired if desired 2 plants per hole then the seed is inserted 3 seeds per hole, if desired 1 plant per hole, then the seed is inserted 2 grains per hole.

Miscellaneous

In irrigated fields, corn is usually planted in the dry season. In the rain field, planted at the end of the rainy season. In the dry land planted in the early rainy season and the end of the rainy season.

MAINTENANCE


Corn Plants
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Thinning And Counseling

The thinning can be determined by the number of plants per hole as desired. If in 1 hole grows 3 plants, while the desired only 2 or 1, then the plant should be reduced. Plants that grow at least well, cut with knives or sharp scissors right above the ground. Indirect plant extraction is not allowed, because it will hurt the roots of other crops that will be allowed to grow. Safety extension aims to replace seeds that do not grow/die. This activity is carried out 7-10 days after planting. The number and type of seeds and the treatment in safety counseling are the same as planting. Safety counseling should use seeds of the same type. Encryption time is at the latest two weeks after planting.

Weeding

Weeding aims to clear the land of the Intruder crops (weeds). The wedding is done 2 once a week. Weeding on the young corn plant is usually with a hand or a small hoe, fork and so on. The importance in this weeding does not interfere with the rooting of plants that at the age is still not strong enough gripping the soil. It is usually done after a 15-day plant.

Ground

The ground is done along with weeding and aims to strengthen the position of the rod so that the plant is not easy to fall. It also closes the roots that emerge above the ground due to aeration. This activity was conducted when the plant was 6 weeks old, along with the fertilization time. The way, the ground on the right and the left of the plant line is sorted with a hoe, then piled in the row of plants. In this way will be formed and elongated. For energy efficiency usually, the fertilization is done along with the second weeding after the plant is 1 month old.

Fertilization

The dose of fertilizing corn for each Hexa is 200-300 kg of Urea fertilizer, TSP/SP fertilizer 36 as much as 75-100 kg, and KCl fertilizer as much as 50-100 kg. Fertilization can be done in three stages. In the first stage (basic fertilizer), fertilizer is administered along with planting time. In the second stage (fertilizer I), fertilizer is given after the corn plant aged 3-4 weeks after planting. In the third stage (fertilizer II), fertilizer is administered after a corn plant aged 8 weeks or after panicked out.

Watering

After the seeds are planted, watering is done sufficiently, except when the soil has been moist. Subsequent watering is given sufficiently to keep the plant wilt. But before the flowering plant, the water needed to be larger so it needs to be flowing water in the trenches between the spacing of the corn plant.

Pesticide Spraying Time

Pesticide use is only allowed after visible pests that can harm the production process of corn. The pesticide used is a pesticide used to control the caterpillar. The implementation of spraying should show natural enemy sustainability and the population level of pest attack so that this treatment will be more efficient.

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